by Timur  

The word тетрадь can be translated as notebook or exercise book, depending on whether it is used for school or not. It is a feminine noun that declines like this:

Sg Pl
Nomтетрадь тетради
Gen тетради тетрадей
Insтетрадью тетрадями

An exercise book is one of the core elements of the Russian education system and is regularly used by students on every step of the scholastic stairway—from preschool to high school. The most popular form of тетрадь used in schools holds about twelve pages, has a thin paper cover and is usually bonded with staples. Graph paper is used for math and lined paper for all other subjects. It’s basically a notebook in which students do their class work exercises and homework assignments. Generally, teachers require students to write with ink and keep everything as neat as possible, or else the grade is lowered. I’ve experienced this downgrading many times.

Image taken from www.ruslania.com

Example sentences:

Мама, пожалуйста, купи мне новую тетрадь. Mom, please buy me a new exercise book.
Елена, запиши все детали в свою тетрадь, а то ты всё забудешь. Elena, write down all the details into your notebook, or else you’ll forget everything.
Я даже не знаю, сколько тетрадей я потерял за этот год. I don’t even know how many exercise books I have lost over this year.

Тетрадь, especially if it’s a small one, can also be referred to as тетрадка. People often use the two terms interchangeably. Examples:

Владимир Михайлович схватил мою тетрадку, отошёл к доске, надел свои очки и стал внимательно её рас­сматривать. Vladimir Mikhailovich grabbed my exercise book, stepped over to the blackboard, put on his glasses and began to carefully examine it.
Перелистав пару страниц, он медленно её закрыл и посмотрел на меня. After flipping over a couple of pages, he slowly closed it and looked at me.
Я знал, что ему не понравятся мои рисунки. I knew that he wouldn’t like my drawings.
— Что? Где же теперь эта тетрадка? “What? Where is this notebook now?”
— Они её конфисковали со всеми остальными бумагами. “They confiscated it with all the other papers.”
— Дурак! Разве я тебе не говорил, чтобы ты эту проклятую тетрадку дома не держал!? “Fool! Didn’t I tell you not to keep this damned notebook in the house!?
— Извини, Вася, я же не знал, что всё так получится. “Sorry, Vasia, I didn’t know that everything was going to work out this way.”

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