The Russian word мусор is a noun that means ‘trash.’ It is a first declension noun. It is never used in the plural.
Here are some examples:
|Вынеси мусор, пожалуйста.||Take out the trash please.|
|В мусорном ящике нет мусора.||There's no trash in the trash can.|
|Брось скорлупу в мусор.||Throw the eggshells in the trash.|
Russia, like many countries, disposes of their nation's trash by means of landfills. Being that Russia makes up 1/8 of the Earth's landmass they should have no problem finding places to dispose of trash, at least that's what many people in the government and waste management industry believed. That notion came to a screeching halt once a lot of the landfills started filling up. The fact that most of these full landfills are located on the outskirts of cities and towns raised the stakes even higher. It has posed a lot of problems to both the infrastructure and the nearby residents. As the amount of trash increases, the air and soil quality surrounding the landfill decreases. This makes for very unhealthy and stinky conditions. Nobody wants to step outside their house on their way to work just to be greeted by a big whiff of last year's dinner. I'll pass on those leftovers, thank you very much. The waste management industry is working with the government to find an reasonable solution. It's a work in progress, but until it gets resolved, plug your nose.
Interestingly enough, the word «мусор» is also used as a derogatory name for policemen in Russia. It's equivalent to calling a police officer 'pig' in the United States. I do not recommend using this slang within earshot of any law enforcement officer, because it'll probably get you into a pretty nasty situation. When used in this manner the word does have a plural form: «мусора».
Here are some examples:
|Не едь по Калинина, там мусора.¹||Don't take Kalinin Street: the pigs are there.|
|Не превышай скорость по Вишневского, а то мусора оштрафуют.||Don't speed on Vishnevsky Street, otherwise the pigs will ticket you.|
¹ The word едь is substandard Russian speech, not something that a foreigner should emulate. But if a Russian is going to be rude enough to call the police мусор, then he'll probably allow himself this kind of grammatical irregularity as well, so I think we'll keep the example as it stands.
One of the Russian words that can be translated as ‘to travel’ is путешествовать. It conjugates like this:
|No such thing as
In some senses this verb is exactly like the English verb ‘to travel’:
|Моя бабушка не любит путешествовать.||My grandmother doesn't like to travel.|
|Ты часто путешествуешь?||Do you travel often?
How often do you travel?
|В прошлом году я всё лето путешествовал.||Last year I traveled the whole summer.|
|— Какие планы у тебя на лето?
— Я всё лето буду путешествовать.
|“What are your plans for the summer?”
“I'm going to travel all summer long.”
One difference between this verb and the English verb ‘to travel’ is that in English we talk about traveling to a place. In Russian you can't use в + accusative or на + accusative with путешествовать. Instead you talk about traveling ‘around’ a place. In that sense we use по + dative:
|В прошлом году я путешествовал по Европе.||Last year I traveled around Europe.|
|— Какие у тебя планы на лето?
— Я буду путешествовать по Норвегии.
|“What are your plans for the summer?”
“I will be traveling around Norway.”
|— Ты любишь путешествовать за границей?
— Нет, больше всего я путешествую по местам, которые я уже знаю.
|“Do you like to travel abroad?”
“No, I mostly like to travel around places I already know.”
Суеревие is the Russian word for superstition. This word declines as such:
|У него нет суеверий.||He does not have superstitions.|
|Мне не нравятся суеверия.||I don’t like superstitions.|
|Как ты справляешься с абсурдными суевериями своей мамы?||How do you deal with your mother's ridiculous superstitions?|
|Я слушала лекцию о русских суевериях.||I attended a lecture on Russian superstitions.|
A superstition is the belief in the supernatural beings or events. Most all countries have them and they are rooted into their cultures. Some of the American ones are don’t break a mirror unless you want seven years of bad luck. If a black cats crosses your path you are also going to have bad luck. We have some rhymes to help people remember them as well, such as step on a crack will break your mother’s back. Some of Russia’s superstitions are: On exam day you shouldn’t wear anything new, make your bed or cut your fingernails, a funeral procession is good luck unless you cross its path. Both the US and Russia believe that breaking a mirror is bad luck. For Russians looking into a broken mirror is also is bad luck. Nowadays superstitions are not as highly regarded but certain ones are still believed by older generations. Growing up as Christian I was taught that superstitions are fun to think about but not something to live by because the supernatural of that sort is not real or worth worry about it.
The word for head in Russian is голова. But the word for the major bone structure that makes up head, or the skull, is the череп. This word declines this way:
|У него маленький череп.||He has a small skull.|
|Она родилась без черепа.||She was born without a skull.|
|Она сломала себе череп.||She broke her skull.|
|Это моя любимая чашка из черепа прадедушки.||This is my favorite cup [made from] the skull of my great-grandfather.|
The skull, like all the other bones, is there to protect the organs behind it and in this case the brain. The skull is made up of minor bones connected by sutures and joints. The two major parts of the skull are the mandible (the jaw) which is part of the facial bones and the cranium. In English we have a lot of terms that incorporate the word skull. The word numbskull is an example which translates into Russian as тупица. We all know someone who has acted like a numbskull once in a while. Usually a numbskull is someone who did not quite think something through and did something or said something that was stupid or mean. I know when I have to work on a school project with a group there might be someone that isn’t quite competent and we have to talk to that person to help them pick up the slack.
бездельник is the word for slacker in Russian. It declines as such:
|Он бездельник.||He is a slacker.|
|Мне не нравятся бездельники.||I do not like slackers.|
|В группе у нас нет бездельников.||In the group we do not have slackers.|
|Я был бездельником, но уже нет.||I was a slacker, but no more.|
We all know a slacker or two and usually are not bothered by them unless we have to work on a project with them or are in a serious relationship with them. You can usually find them in school because jobs usually fire the slackers a lot faster than they are expelled from school. I am also sure we have all been a slacker about something at one point in our life. But for the most part we usually try to be on time about turning in an assignment and being efficient in the work as well. We are taught to do our best but sometimes things get in the way such as stress from a fight at home, a break up or just having a bad day that can cause us to delay in doing an assignment or doing it well. The etymology of the word is broken down as such без (without) + дело (work) + ник =suffix to make it into a pronoun. I remember having to work with one for a group project, and they were barely there, our group could not get a hold of him and he could not do the work. We were able to talk to the teacher and she talked with him and removed him from the group so we did not have to lose grade points on his behalf. For those that know that they tend to slack they need to try extra hard to not especially when working in a group because it makes it harder on everyone else. If they are not normally slacking but something came up they need to keep in touch with the group to let them know if they can help or not and if not ask to be removed from the group.