|« Выступать/выступить||Стих »|
We previously noted the use of the word чтобы in sentences like this where someone in the first clause wants someone else in the second clause to do something.
|I want||my daughter to write a letter to her grandmother.|
The translation of such sentences into English is fairly straightforward. But sometimes a person in the first clause wants someone else in the first clause to get a third person in the second clause to do something. Hm. That was not the clearest statement, was it? An example is in order:
Пётр говорит Тане, чтобы её подруга позвонила вечером.
Here Pyotr is talking to Tanya with the purpose of getting Tanya's friend to call in the evening. Now just how are we supposed to translate that? We are going to have to add some words in the English translation to get it to flow better. After some reflection I have decided that you need either a “to have” construction or a “should” construction:
Pyotr is telling Tanya to have her friend call in the evening.
Pyotr is telling Tanya that her friend should call in the evening.
Here are five more examples:
|Декан сказал Марии Андреевне, чтобы её дочь не волновалась.||The dean told Maria Andreevna that her daughter shouldn't worry.|
|Таня говорит родителям, чтобы соседи подарили ей на свадьбу машину.||Tanya is telling her parents to have the neighbors give her a car as a wedding present.|
|Tanya is telling her parents that the neighbors should give her a car as a wedding present.|
|Миша сказал Петру, чтобы Аркадий позвонил ему.||Misha told Pyotr to have Arkadi give him a call.|
|Misha told Pyotr that Arkadi should give him a call.|
|Таня сказала Мише, чтобы ребята подождали её у клуба.||Tanya told Misha to have the guys wait for her at the club.|
|Tanya told Misha that the guys should wait for her at the club.|
|Кевин сказал Оле, чтобы Миша и Таня прислали ему приглашение на свадьбу.||Kevin told Olya to have Misha and Tanya send him a wedding invitation.|
|Kevin told Olya that Misha and Tanya should send him a wedding invitation.|
On the whole I like the “to have” translations better than the “should” translations. In either case there is a bit of ambiguity. The “to have” construction in such contexts can express either a suggestion or a command. In other words “Misha told Pyotr to have Arkadi give him a call” can mean either that Misha is making a suggestion for Pyotr to call Arkdai, or it can be taken as a command, i.e., Misha is telling Pyotr to do it.
The “should” construction in such contexts can express either a suggestion or a statement of moral obligation. In other words “Misha told Pyotr that Arkadi should give him a call” can mean either that Misha is making a suggestion or that Misha is saying Arkadi has a moral obligation to call.
The Russian чтобы clauses in these context better match the “to have” range of meaning than the “should” range of meaning.
All the Russian examples here are from p. 140 of “Russian Stage 2: Welcome Back!” by Irina Dolgova and Cynthia Martin. The suggestions for English translations are my own, so any errors must be blamed on me, not them.
Don responds: Thanks! I've made the correction.