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If you look up the word котлета in some Russian-English dictionaries, you will find the word cutlet as a translation. If you do, take your black pen and cross that line of the dictionary out. In modern American English a cutlet is a piece of meat, but it is NEVER ground meat.¹ In Russian котлета means a patty of ground meat.
You can have all sorts of ground meat patties, of course, from all sorts of animals:
|котлеты из говядины||hamburger patties
lit. patties of beef
|котлеты из курицы||chicken patties
lit. patties of chicken
|котлеты из рыбы||fish patties²
lit. patties of fish
Ground meat patties are very common in Russian cafeterias and on the table in Russian homes. Here are some sample sentences:
|— На каком масле лучше жарить котлеты?
— Если мясо достаточно жирное, то не нужно никакого масла.
|“What kind of oil is it best to fry meat patties in?”
“If the meat is fatty enough, you don't need any oil.”
|Мама всегда добавляет чеснок, лук, соль и перец в фарш для котлет.||Mom always addes garlic, onion, salt and pepper to ground meat patties.|
|— Ты любишь котлеты?
— Нет, я мясо не ем.
— А рыбные котлеты?
— Ну, да, против рыбных котлет я ничего не имею.
|“Do you like ground [meat] patties?”
“No, I don't eat meat.”
“What if they are made from fish?”
“Well, yes, I don't have anything against fish patties.”
|— Я сделал американский сэндвич из говяжей котлеты и двух тостов.
— Какой ты невежда. Это называется «гамбургер».
|“I made an American sandwich with a beef patty and two pieces of toasted bread.”
“You are such an ignoramus. That's called a ‘hamburger’.”
¹ If you look at certain dictionaries, e.g. the current definition of cutlet at dictionary.com (mirror) includes something like “a flat croquette.” That is not a current meaning of the word in the US.
² Although “fish patties” is a perfectly grammatical phrase in English, I don't think I've ever had a fish patty in the US in my entire life. The phrase sounds bizarre to the average American ear.
I've also occasionally heard 'patty' used for a fish filet, if we're intending to use the filet on a sandwich.