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Пластинка is a slang term for a грампластинка (gramophone record) and can be translated as record. Another popular slang term that is still around in both English and Russian is винил, which simply means vinyl.
Records were always a big deal in almost any household that had at least a tiny stray of affection for music and some type of a gramophone. Records of groups like the Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd and the Beatles were a huge deal amongst меломанов (passionate music lovers) because they were really hard to obtain, especially in the 60’s and most of the 70’s, the golden years of rock-n-roll. For example one of my relatives was allowed to occasionally travel abroad, and always brought back a couple of Led Zeppelin and Beatles albums for which people always offered him serious rubles. The main reason for this is because a lot of western music was considered to be ideologically inconsistent with the morals of the state and was largely frowned upon by the government. The biggest Soviet record label Мелодия (Melody), at first didn’t distribute certain albums and songs that were widely popular in the West at the time. In return, people found creative ways to get around this dilemma, like “burning” music onto records made out of large X-ray prints, known as запись "на костях" (recording "on the bones"). Fortunately by the mid 80’s, the restrictions began to faded off, finally warranting people to listen to what they liked and allowing numerous Russian rock bands like Кино and Зоопарк to go mainstream.
Image from livejournal.ru
Photo of a record "on the bones." The music was recorded onto someone's X-ray print. I think I'll make one out of my grandfather's lung shots.
Here are some example sentences:
|B музыкальном магазине на Котовской улице вы можете купить диски, кассеты и старые пластинки.||At the music store on the Kotovskaya street you can buy discs, cassettes and old records|
|B фильме “Зомби по имени Шон” есть сцена, где два главных героя метают свои пластинки в большого уродливого зомби.||In the film “Shaun of the Dead” there is a scene where the two protagonists are throwing their records at a big ugly zombie.|
|B моей коллекции имеется много редких пластинок, за которые мне постоянно предлагают очень большие деньги, но я их не собираюсь пока продавать.||My collection includes many rare records for which I am constantly offered large sums of money, but I’m not planning to sell them for now.|
|Тело нашли на кухне под столом, убийца не взял ни денег, ни драгоценностей, нo супруга умершего сказала, что пропала пластинка Ramones "Ракета в Россию".||The body was found in the kitchen under the table, the killer did not take any money or jewelry, but the spouse of the deceased said that the Ramones "Rocket to Russia" record is missing.|
Да, небольшая ошибка — в первом примере после "кассеты" запятая не нужна.